- Note continued: 4.1.2. Bathymetry
- 4.1.3. Factors affecting sound speed and attenuation in pure seawater
- 4.1.4. Speed of sound in pure seawater
- 4.1.5. Attenuation of sound in pure seawater
- 4.2. Properties of bubbles and marine life
- 4.2.1. Properties of air bubbles in water
- 4.2.2. Properties of marine life
- 4.3. Properties of the sea surface
- 4.3.1. Effect of wind
- 4.3.2. Surface roughness
- 4.3.3. Wind-generated bubbles
- 4.4. Properties of the seabed
- 4.4.1. Unconsolidated sediments
- 4.4.2. Rocks
- 4.4.3. Geoacoustic models
- 4.5. References
- 5. Underwater acoustics
- 5.1. Introduction
- 5.2. wave equations for fluid and solid media
- 5.2.1. Compressional waves in a fluid medium
- 5.2.2. Compressional waves and shear waves in a solid medium
- 5.3. Reflection of plane waves
- 5.3.1. Reflection from and transmission through a simple fluid-fluid or fluid-solid boundary
- 5.3.2. Reflection from a layered fluid boundary
- 5.3.3. Reflection from a layered solid boundary
- 5.3.4. Reflection from a perfectly reflecting rough surface
- 5.3.5. Reflection from a partially reflecting rough surface
- 5.4. Scattering of plane waves
- 5.4.1. Scattering cross-sections and the far field
- 5.4.2. Backscattering from solid objects
- 5.4.3. Backscattering from fluid objects
- 5.4.4. Scattering from rough boundaries
- 5.5. Dispersion in the presence of impurities
- 5.5.1. Wood's model for sediments in dilute suspension
- 5.5.2. Buckingham's model for saturated sediments with inter-granular contact
- 5.5.3. Effect of bubbles or bladdered fish
- 5.6. References
- 6. Sonar signal processing
- 6.1. Processing gain for passive sonar
- 6.1.1. Beam patterns
- 6.1.2. Directivity index
- 6.1.3. Array gain
- 6.1.4. BB application
- 6.1.5. Time domain processing.
- Note continued: 6.2. Processing gain for active sonar
- 6.2.1. Signal carrier and envelope
- 6.2.2. Simple envelopes and their spectra
- 6.2.3. Autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions and the matched filter
- 6.2.4. Ambiguity function
- 6.2.5. Matched filter gain for perfect replica
- 6.2.6. Matched filter gain for imperfect replica (coherence loss)
- 6.2.7. Array gain and total processing gain (active sonar)
- 6.3. References
- 7. Statistical detection theory
- 7.1. Single known pulse in Gaussian noise. coherent processing
- 7.1.1. False alarm probability for Gaussian-distributed noise
- 7.1.2. Detection probability for signal with random phase
- 7.1.3. Detection threshold
- 7.1.4. Application to other waveforms
- 7.2. Multiple known pulses in Gaussian noise, incoherent processing
- 7.2.1. False alarm probability for Rayleigh-distributed noise amplitude
- 7.2.2. Detection probability for incoherently processed pulse train
- 7.3. Application to sonar
- 7.3.1. Active sonar
- 7.3.2. Passive sonar
- 7.3.3. Decision strategies and the detection threshold
- 7.4. Multiple looks
- 7.4.1. Introduction
- 7.4.2. AND and OR operations
- 7.4.3. Multiple OR operations
- 7.4.4. "M out of N" operations
- 7.5. References
- pt. III TOWARDS APPLICATIONS
- 8. Sources and scatterers of sound
- 8.1. Reflection and scattering from ocean boundaries
- 8.1.1. Reflection from the sea surface
- 8.1.2. Scattering from the sea surface
- 8.1.3. Reflection from the seabed
- 8.1.4. Scattering from the seabed
- 8.2. Target strength, volume backscattering strength, and volume attenuation coefficient
- 8.2.1. Target strength of point-like scatterers
- 8.2.2. Volume backscattering strength and attenuation coefficient of distributed scatterers
- 8.2.3. Column strength and wake strength of extended volume scatterers.
- Note continued: 8.3. Sources of underwater sound
- 8.3.1. Shipping source spectrum level measurements
- 8.3.2. Distributed sources on the sea surface
- 8.3.3. Distributed sources on the seabed (crustacea)
- 8.4. References
- 9. Propagation of underwater sound
- 9.1. Propagation loss
- 9.1.1. Effect of the seabed in isovelocity water
- 9.1.2. Effect of a sound speed profile
- 9.2. Noise level
- 9.2.1. Deep water
- 9.2.2. Shallow water
- 9.2.3. Noise maps
- 9.3. Signal level (active sonar)
- 9.3.1. reciprocity principle
- 9.3.2. Calculation of echo level
- 9.3.3. V-duct propagation (isovelocity case)
- 9.3.4. U-duct propagation (linear profile)
- 9.4. Reverberation level
- 9.4.1. Isovelocity water
- 9.4.2. Effect of refraction
- 9.5. Signal-to-reverberation ratio (active sonar)
- 9.5.1. V-duct (isovelocity case)
- 9.5.2. U-duct (linear profile)
- 9.6. References
- 10. Transmitter and receiver characteristics
- 10.1. Transmitter characteristics
- 10.1.1. Of man-made systems
- 10.1.2. Of marine mammals
- 10.2. Receiver characteristics
- 10.2.1. Of man-made sonar
- 10.2.2. Of marine mammals, amphibians, human divers, and fish
- 10.3. References
- 11. sonar equations revisited
- 11.1. Introduction
- 11.2. Passive sonar with coherent processing: tonal detector
- 11.2.1. Sonar equation
- 11.2.2. Source level (SL)
- 11.2.3. Narrowband propagation loss (PL)
- 11.2.4. Noise spectrum level (NLf)
- 11.2.5. Bandwidth (BW)
- 11.2.6. Array gain (AG) and directivity index (DI)
- 11.2.7. Detection threshold (DT)
- 11.2.8. Worked example
- 11.3. Passive sonar with incoherent processing: energy detector
- 11.3.1. Sonar equation
- 11.3.2. Source level (SL)
- 11.3.3. Broadband propagation loss (PL)
- 11.3.4. Broadband noise level (NL)
- 11.3.5. Processing gain (PG).
- Note continued: 11.3.6. Broadband detection threshold (DT)
- 11.3.7. Worked example
- 11.4. Active sonar with coherent processing: matched filter
- 11.4.1. Sonar equation
- 11.4.2. Eeho level (EL). target strength (TS). and equivalent target strength (TSeq)
- 11.4.3. Background level (BL)
- 11.4.4. Processing gain (PG)
- 11.4.5. Detection threshold (DT)
- 11.4.6. Worked example
- 11.5. future of sonar performance modeling
- 11.5.1. Advances in signal processing and oceanographic modeling
- 11.5.2. Autonomous platforms
- 11.5.3. Environmental impact of anthropogenic sound
- 11.6. References
- APPENDICES
- A. Special functions and mathematical operations
- A.1. Definitions and basic properties of special functions
- A.1.1. Heaviside step function, sign function, and rectangle function
- A.1.2. Sine cardinal and sinh cardinal functions
- A.1.3. Dirae delta function
- A.1.4. Fresnel integrals
- A.1.5. Error function, complementary error function, and righttail probability function
- A.1.6. Exponential integrals and related functions
- A.1.7. Gamma function and incomplete gamma functions
- A.1.8. Marcum Q functions
- A.1.9. Elliptic integrals
- A.1.10. Bessel and related functions
- A.1.11. Hypergeometric functions
- A.2. Fourier transforms and related integrals
- A.2.1. Forward and inverse Fourier transforms
- A.2.2. Cross-eorrelation
- A.2.3. Convolution
- A.2.4. Discrete Fourier transform
- A.2.5. Plancherel's theorem
- A.3. Stationary phase method for evaluation of integrals
- A.3.1. Stationary phase approximation
- A.3.2. Derivation
- A.4. Solution to quadratic, cubic, and quartic equations
- A.4.1. Quadratic equation
- A.4.2. Cubic equation
- A.4.3. Quartic and higher order equations
- A.5. References
- B. Units and nomenclature
- B.1. Units
- B.1.1. SI units.
- Note continued: B.1.2. Non-SI units
- B.1.3. Logarithmic units
- B.2. Nomenclature
- B.2.1. Notation
- B.2.3. Names of fish and marine mammals
- B.3. References
- C. Fish and their swimbladders
- C.1. Tables of fish and bladder types
- C.2. References.
Sonar performance modelling (SPM) is concerned with the prediction of quantitative measures of sonar performance, such as probability of detection. It is a multi-disciplinary subject, requiring knowledge and expertise in the disparate fields of underwater acoustics, acoustical oceanography, sonar signal processing and statistical detection theory. No books have been published on this subject, however, since the 3rd edition of Urick's classic work 25 years ago and so Dr Ainslie's book will fill a much-needed gap in the market. Currently, up-to-date information can only be found, in different forms and often with conflicting information, in various journals, conference and textbook publications. Dr Michael Ainslie is eminently qualified to write this unique book. He has worked on sonar performance modeling problems since 1983. He has written many peer reviewed research articles and conference papers related to sonar performance modeling, making contributions in the fields of sound propagation and detection theory.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)