Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, Vol 8 (2021)
alternans, the maximum calcium transient, IL-17 neutralizer, IL-17, ventricular arrhythmias, Diseases of the circulatory (Cardiovascular) system, and RC666-701
Background: The mechanism of Interleukin-17 (IL-17) induced ventricular arrhythmia (VA) remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of intracellular calcium (Cai) handling and VA susceptibility by IL-17.Methods: The electrophysiological properties of isolated perfused rabbit hearts under IL-17 (20 ng/ml, N = 6) and the IL-17 with neutralizer (0.4 μg/ml, N = 6) were evaluated using an optical mapping system. The action potential duration (APD) and Cai transient duration (CaiTD) were examined, and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of ion channels was performed.Results: There were longer APD80, CaiTD80 and increased thresholds of APD and CaiTD alternans, the maximum slope of APD restitution and induction of VA threshold in IL-17 group compared with those in IL-17 neutralizer and baseline groups. During ventricular fibrillation, the number of phase singularities and dominant frequency were both significantly greater in IL-17 group than in baseline group. The mRNA expressions of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, phospholamban, and ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channel were upregulated, and the subunit of L-type Ca2+ current and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2a were significantly reduced in IL-17 group compared to baseline and IL-17 neutralizer group.Conclusions: IL-17 enhanced CaiTD and APD alternans through disturbances in calcium handling, which may increase VA susceptibility.
BUNDLE-branch block, VENTRICULAR tachycardia, VENTRICULAR arrhythmia, SODIUM, and INTRAVENOUS therapy
Lithium intoxication induces Brugada-pattern ECG, ventricular arrhythmia, and sudden death with the predominant preference for the male over the female gender. This study investigated the mechanisms of gender difference in lithium-induced arrhythmogenesis. The ECG parameters were recorded in male and female rabbits before and after the intravenous administration of lithium chloride (LiCl) (1, 3, 10 mmol/kg). Patch clamps were used to study the sodium current (INa) and late sodium current (INa-late) in the isolated single male and female right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) cardiomyocytes before and after LiCl. Male rabbits (n = 9) were more prone to developing lithium-induced Brugada-pattern ECG changes (incomplete right bundle branch block, ST elevation and QRS widening) with fatal arrhythmia (66.7% vs. 0%, p = 0.002) than in female (n = 7) rabbits at 10 mmol/kg (but not 1 or 3 mmol/kg). Compared to those in the female RVOT cardiomyocytes, LiCl (100 μM) reduced INa to a greater extent and increased INa-late in the male RVOT cardiomyocytes. Moreover, in the presence of ranolazine (the INa-late inhibitor, 3.6 mg/kg iv loading, followed by a second iv bolus 6.0 mg/kg administered 30 min later, n = 5), LiCl (10 mmol/kg) did not induce Brugada-pattern ECG changes (p < 0.005). The male gender is much predisposed to lithium-induced Brugada-pattern ECG changes with a greater impact on INa and INa-late in RVOT cardiomyocytes. Targeting INa-late may be a potential therapeutic strategy for Brugada syndrome-related ventricular tachyarrhythmia. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
International Journal of Molecular Sciences; Oct2022, Vol. 23 Issue 19, p10993, 13p
PULMONARY arterial hypertension, ATRIAL arrhythmias, SINOATRIAL node, ENDOTHELIN receptors, PREPROENDOTHELIN, RIGHT heart atrium, CONNEXIN 43, and WESTERN immunoblotting
Atrial arrhythmias are considered prominent phenomena in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) resulting from atrial electrical and structural remodeling. Endothelin (ET)-1 levels correlate with PAH severity and are associated with atrial remodeling and arrhythmia. In this study, hemodynamic measurement, western blot analysis, and histopathology were performed in the control and monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg)-induced PAH rabbits. Conventional microelectrodes were used to simultaneously record the electrical activity in the isolated sinoatrial node (SAN) and right atrium (RA) tissue preparations before and after ET-1 (10 nM) or BQ-485 (an ET-A receptor antagonist, 100 nM) perfusion. MCT-treated rabbits showed an increased relative wall thickness in the pulmonary arterioles, mean cell width, cross-sectional area of RV myocytes, and higher right ventricular systolic pressure, which were deemed to have PAH. Compared to the control, the spontaneous beating rate of SAN–RA preparations was faster in the MCT-induced PAH group, which can be slowed down by ET-1. MCT-induced PAH rabbits had a higher incidence of sinoatrial conduction blocks, and ET-1 can induce atrial premature beats or short runs of intra-atrial reentrant tachycardia. BQ 485 administration can mitigate ET-1-induced RA arrhythmogenesis in MCT-induced PAH. The RA specimens from MCT-induced PAH rabbits had a smaller connexin 43 and larger ROCK1 and phosphorylated Akt than the control, and similar PKG and Akt to the control. In conclusion, ET-1 acts as a trigger factor to interact with the arrhythmogenic substrate to initiate and maintain atrial arrhythmias in PAH. ET-1/ET-A receptor/ROCK signaling may be a target for therapeutic interventions to treat PAH-induced atrial arrhythmias. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
HEART metabolism, DIABETES, ATRIAL fibrillation, ATRIAL arrhythmias, ENERGY metabolism, FATTY acid oxidation, and THERAPEUTICS
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of sustained arrhythmia in diabetes mellitus (DM). Its morbidity and mortality rates are high, and its prevalence will increase as the population ages. Despite expanding knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms of AF, current pharmacological interventions remain unsatisfactory; therefore, novel findings on the underlying mechanism are required. A growing body of evidence suggests that an altered energy metabolism is closely related to atrial arrhythmogenesis, and this finding engenders novel insights into the pathogenesis of the pathophysiology of AF. In this review, we provide comprehensive information on the mechanistic insights into the cardiac energy metabolic changes, altered substrate oxidation rates, and mitochondrial dysfunctions involved in atrial arrhythmogenesis, and suggest a promising advanced new therapeutic approach to treat patients with AF. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Excitation-contraction coupling from the integration of action potential duration (APD) and muscle contractility plays an important role in arrhythmogenesis. We aimed to determine whether distinctive excitation-contraction coupling contributes to the genesis of ventricular tachycardias (VTs). Action potential (AP) and mechanical activity were simultaneously recorded under electrical pacing (cycle lengths from 1000 to 100 ms) in the tissue model created from isolated rabbit right ventricular outflow tracts treated with NS 5806 (10 μM, transient outward potassium current enhancer), pinacidil (2 μM, ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener), and pilsicainide (5 μM, sodium channel blocker). There were 15 (9.9%) inducible VT episodes (group 1) and 136 (90.1%) non-inducible VT episodes (group 2) in our tissue model. Group 1 had greater post-pacing increases of the first occurrence of AP at 90% repolarization (ΔAPD90, p 15% and a ΔContractility > 270%, but were undetectable in those with a ΔAPD90 < 15% and a ΔContractility < 270%. In those with pacing-induced VTs, KB-R7943 (10 μM, a Na+-Ca2+ exchanger inhibitor, NCX inhibitor) significantly reduced the occurrence of VTs from 100.0 to 20.0% (15/15 to 3/15 episodes, p < 0.001). Concurrent increases in both post-pacing APD and contractility resulted in the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias. NCX inhibition may be a potential therapeutic strategy for ventricular arrhythmias.
Fa Po Chung, Shih-Lin Chang, Yung Nan Tsai, Yenn Jiang Lin, Shuen Hsin Liu, Satoshi Higa, Ya Wen Hsiao, Yu-Feng Hu, Shien-Fong Lin, Li Wei Lo, Yu Ting Huang, and Shih-Ann Chen
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. 35:889-900
Pharmacology (medical), Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine, Pharmacology, General Medicine, Interleukin 17, MAPK/ERK pathway, Rhodiola, biology.organism_classification, biology, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, Fibrosis, medicine.disease, medicine, Stimulation, business.industry, business, Salidroside, chemistry.chemical_compound, chemistry, and Apoptosis
Purpose Ventricular arrhythmia (VA) is related to inflammatory activity. Rhodiola crenulate (RC) and its main active component, salidroside, have been reported as anti-inflammatory agents. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of RC and salidroside in preventing VA via the inhibition of IL-17 in an ischemic heart failure (HF) model. Methods Rabbit HF models were established by coronary artery ligation for 4 weeks. These rabbits were treated with RC (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and salidroside (9.5 mg/kg) once every 2 days for 4 weeks. WBC, serum biochemistry, ECG, and the expression of CD4+ T cells were measured every 2 weeks. The mRNA and protein expressions of IL-17 were measured by real time-PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting after RC and salidroside treatment for 4 weeks. Open-chest epicardial catheter stimulation was performed for VA provocation. Results After RC and salidroside treatment in HF left ventricle, (1) the levels of WBC and CD4+ T cells decreased, (2) the expression of IL-17 and its downstream target genes, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, and CCL20, reduced, (3) the level of NLRP3 inflammasome was decreased, (4) fibrosis and collagen production were significantly downregulated, (5) p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were attenuated, (6) the inducibility of VA was decreased, and (7) the levels of Kir2.1, Nav1.5, NCX, PLB, SERCA2a and RyR were up-regulated. Conclusions RC inhibited the expression of IL-17 and its downstream target genes that were mediated by activation of several MAPKs, which decreased the levels of fibrosis and apoptosis and suppressed VA.