Condensed Matter - Strongly Correlated Electrons and Mathematical Physics

Abstract

We continue the study of the Inverse Participation Ratios (IPRs) of the XXZ Heisenberg spin chain initiated by Misguich, Pasquier and Luck (2016) by focusing on the case of the XX Heisenberg Spin Chain. For the ground state, Misguich et al. note that calculating the IPR is equivalent to Dyson's constant term ex-conjecture. We express the IPRs of excited states as an apparently new "discrete" Hall inner product. We analyze this inner product using the theory of symmetric functions (Jack polynomials, Schur polynomials, the standard Hall inner product and $\omega_{q,t}$) to determine some exact expressions and asymptotics for IPRs. We show that IPRs can be indexed by partitions, and asymptotically the IPR of a partition is equal to that of the conjugate partition. We relate the IPRs to two other models from physics, namely, the circular symplectic ensemble of Dyson and the Dyson-Gaudin two-dimensional Coulomb lattice gas. Finally, we provide a description of the IPRs in terms of a signed count of diagonals of permutohedra. Comment: 16 pages, 1 figure

Mathematics - Combinatorics and Mathematics - Metric Geometry

Abstract

For a general family of graphs on $\mathbb{Z}^n$, we translate the edge-isoperimetric problem into a continuous isoperimetric problem in $\mathbb{R}^n$. We then solve the continuous isoperimetric problem using the Brunn-Minkowski inequality and Minkowski's theorem on Mixed Volumes. This translation allows us to conclude, under a reasonable assumption about the discrete problem, that the shapes of the optimal sets in the discrete problem approach the shape of the optimal set in the continuous problem as the size of the set grows. The solution is the zonotope defined as the Minkowski sum of the edges of the original graph. We demonstrate the efficacy of this method by revisiting some previously solved classical edge-isoperimetric problems. We then apply our method to some discrete isoperimetric problems which had not previously been solved. The complexity of those solutions suggest that it would be quite difficult to find them using discrete methods only. Comment: 18 pages, 4 figures

We study the first mixed volume for nonconvex sets and apply the results to limits of discrete isoperimetric problems. Let $ M,N \subset \mathbb{R}^d$. Define $D_N (M)=\lim_{\epsilon \downarrow 0} \frac{|M+\epsilon N|-|M|}{\epsilon}$ whenever the limit exists. Our main result states that for a compact domain $M \subset \mathbb{R}^d$ with piecewise $C^1$ boundary and bounded $N \subset \mathbb{R}^d$, $D_N(M)=D_{\text{conv}(N)}(M)$ and $D_N(M)=\int_{\text{bd }M} h_N(u_M(x)) \, d \mathcal{H}^{d-1}(x)$. Comment: 7 pages

Mathematics - Differential Geometry, Mathematics - Metric Geometry, and Mathematics - Probability

Abstract

We give a short and simple proof of Cauchy's surface area formula, which states that the average area of a projection of a convex body is equal to its surface area up to a multiplicative constant in the dimension. Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure

Sturmfels, Bernd, Tsukerman, Emmanuel, and Williams, Lauren

Subjects

Mathematics - Combinatorics and Mathematics - Statistics Theory

Abstract

Kenyon and Pemantle (2014) gave a formula for the entries of a square matrix in terms of connected principal and almost-principal minors. Each entry is an explicit Laurent polynomial whose terms are the weights of domino tilings of a half Aztec diamond. They conjectured an analogue of this parametrization for symmetric matrices, where the Laurent monomials are indexed by Catalan paths. In this paper we prove the Kenyon-Pemantle conjecture, and apply this to a statistics problem pioneered by Joe (2006). Correlation matrices are represented by an explicit bijection from the cube to the elliptope.

Mathematics - Optimization and Control and Mathematics - Algebraic Geometry

Abstract

The Gram Spectrahedron of a polynomial parametrizes its sums-of-squares representations. In this note, we determine the dimension of Gram Spectrahedra of univariate polynomials. Comment: 4 pages

Using a generalization due to Lerch [M. Lerch, Sur un th\'{e}or\`{e}me de Zolotarev. Bull. Intern. de l'Acad. Fran\c{c}ois Joseph 3 (1896), 34-37] of a classical lemma of Zolotarev, employed in Zolotarev's proof of the law of quadratic reciprocity, we determine necessary and sufficient conditions for the difference of two Dedekind sums to be in $8\mathbb{Z}$. These yield new necessary conditions for equality of two Dedekind sums. In addition, we resolve a conjecture of Girstmair [Girstmair, Congruences mod 4 for the alternating sum of the partial quotients, arXiv: 1501.00655].

We introduce and study tropical eigenpairs of tensors, a generalization of the tropical spectral theory of matrices. We show the existence and uniqueness of an eigenvalue. We associate to a tensor a directed hypergraph and define a new type of cycle on a hypergraph, which we call an H-cycle. The eigenvalue of a tensor turns out to be equal to the minimal normalized weighted length of H-cycles of the associated hypergraph. We show that the eigenvalue can be computed efficiently via a linear program. Finally, we suggest possible directions of research.

In [Girstmair, A criterion for the equality of Dedekind sums mod $\mathbb{Z}$, Internat. J. Number Theory 10: (2014) 565--568], it was shown that the necessary condition $b \mid (a_1 a_2-1)(a_1-a_2)$ for equality of two dedekind sums $s(a_1,b)$ and $s(a_2,b)$ given in [Jabuka, Robins and Wang, When are two Dedekind sums equal? Internat. J. Number Theory 7: (2011) 2197--2202] is equivalent to $12s(a_1,b)-12s(a_2,b) \in \mathbb{Z}$. In this note, we give a new proof of this result and then find two additional necessary and sufficient conditions for $12s(a_1,b)-12s(a_2,b) \in 2\mathbb{Z}, 4\mathbb{Z}$. These give new necessary conditions on equality of Dedekind sums. Comment: 3 pages

Mathematics - Combinatorics and Mathematics - Representation Theory

Abstract

Let u and v be permutations on n letters, with u <= v in Bruhat order. A Bruhat interval polytope Q_{u,v} is the convex hull of all permutation vectors z = (z(1), z(2),...,z(n)) with u <= z <= v. Note that when u=e and v=w_0 are the shortest and longest elements of the symmetric group, Q_{e,w_0} is the classical permutohedron. Bruhat interval polytopes were studied recently by Kodama and the second author, in the context of the Toda lattice and the moment map on the flag variety. In this paper we study combinatorial aspects of Bruhat interval polytopes. For example, we give an inequality description and a dimension formula for Bruhat interval polytopes, and prove that every face of a Bruhat interval polytope is a Bruhat interval polytope. A key tool in the proof of the latter statement is a generalization of the well-known lifting property for Coxeter groups. Motivated by the relationship between the lifting property and R-polynomials, we also give a generalization of the standard recurrence for R-polynomials. Finally, we define a more general class of polytopes called Bruhat interval polytopes for G/P, which are moment map images of (closures of) totally positive cells in the non-negative part of G/P, and are a special class of Coxeter matroid polytopes. Using tools from total positivity and the Gelfand-Serganova stratification, we show that the face of any Bruhat interval polytope for G/P is again a Bruhat interval polytope for G/P. Comment: 29 pages. We corrected some typos, added a characterization of faces of Bruhat interval polytopes (BIPs), and a result showing that the diameter of Q_{u,v} is length(v)-length(u)

Mathematics - Number Theory and 11D79, 11D61, 11B68, 11D88

Abstract

The Erd\"os-Moser equation is a Diophantine equation proposed more than 60 years ago which remains unresolved to this day. In this paper, we consider the problem in terms of divisibility of power sums and in terms of certain Egyptian fraction equations. As a consequence, we show that solutions must satisfy strong divisibility properties and a restrictive Egyptian fraction equation. Our studies lead us to results on the Bernoulli numbers and allow us to motivate Moser's original approach to the problem. Comment: 22 pages, comments are welcome

Landry, Michael, McMillan, Matthew, and Tsukerman, Emmanuel

Involve 8 (2015) 665-676

Subjects

Mathematics - Symplectic Geometry

Abstract

A toric domain is a subset of $(\mathbb{C}^n,\omega_{\text{std}})$ which is invariant under the standard rotation action of $\mathbb{T}^n$ on $\mathbb{C}^n$. For a toric domain $U$ from a certain large class for which this action is not free, we find a corresponding toric domain $V$ where the standard action is free, and for which $c(U)=c(V)$ for any symplectic capacity $c$. Michael Hutchings gives a combinatorial formula for calculating his embedded contact homology symplectic capacities for certain toric four-manifolds on which the $\mathbb{T}^2$-action is free. Our theorem allows one to extend this formula to a class of toric domains where the action is not free. We apply our theorem to compute ECH capacities for certain intersections of ellipsoids, and find that these capacities give sharp obstructions to symplectically embedding these ellipsoid intersections into balls. Comment: 12 pages, 6 figures

Mathematics - Number Theory and Mathematics - Combinatorics

Abstract

Fourier-Dedekind sums are a generalization of Dedekind sums - important number-theoretical objects that arise in many areas of mathematics, including lattice point enumeration, signature defects of manifolds and pseudo random number generators. A remarkable feature of Fourier-Dedekind sums is that they satisfy a reciprocity law called Rademacher reciprocity. In this paper, we study several aspects of Fourier-Dedekind sums: properties of general Fourier-Dedekind sums, extensions of the reciprocity law, average behavior of Fourier-Dedekind sums, and finally, extrema of 2-dimensional Fourier-Dedekind sums. On properties of general Fourier-Dedekind sums we show that a general Fourier-Dedekind sum is simultaneously a convolution of simpler Fourier-Dedekind sums, and a linear combination of these with integer coefficients. We show that Fourier-Dedekind sums can be extended naturally to a group under convolution. We introduce "Reduced Fourier-Dedekind sums", which encapsulate the complexity of a Fourier-Dedekind sum, describe these in terms of generating functions, and give a geometric interpretation. Next, by finding interrelations among Fourier-Dedekind sums, we extend the range on which Rademacher reciprocity Theorem holds. We go on to study the average behavior of Fourier-Dedekind sums, showing that the average behavior of a Fourier-Dedekind sum is described concisely by a lower-dimensional, simpler Fourier-Dedekind sum. Finally, we focus our study on 2-dimensional Fourier-Dedekind sums. We find tight upper and lower bounds on these for a fixed $t$, estimates on the argmax and argmin, and bounds on the sum of their "reciprocals". Comment: 36 pages

We prove general theorems for isoperimetric problems on lattices of the form ${\mathbb{Z}}^{k} \times {\mathbb{N}}^{d}$ which state that the perimeter of the optimal set is a monotonically increasing function of the volume under certain natural assumptions, such as local symmetry or being induced by an $\ell_p$-norm. The proved monotonicity property is surprising considering that solutions are not always nested (and consequently standard techniques such as compressions do not apply). The monotonicity results of this note apply in particular to vertex- and edge-isoperimetric problems in the $\ell_p$ distances and can be used as a tool to elucidate properties of optimal sets. As an application, we consider the edge-isoperimetric inequality on the graph ${\N}^2$ in the $\ell_\infty$-distance. We show that there exist arbitrarily long consecutive values of the volume for which the minimum boundary is the same. Comment: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1205.6063

We define and study a variant of the center of mass of a polygon and, more generally, of a simplicial polytope which we call the Circumcenter of Mass (CCM). The Circumcenter of Mass is an affine combination of the circumcenters of the simplices in a triangulation of a polytope, weighted by their volumes. For an inscribed polytope, CCM coincides with the circumcenter. Our motivation comes from the study of completely integrable discrete dynamical systems, where the CCM is an invariant of the discrete bicycle (Darboux) transformation and of recuttings of polygons. We show that the CCM satisfies an analog of Archimedes' Lemma, a familiar property of the center of mass. We define and study a generalized Euler line associated to any simplicial polytope, extending the previously studied Euler line associated to the quadrilateral. We show that the generalized Euler line for polygons consists of all centers satisfying natural continuity and homogeneity assumptions and Archimedes' Lemma. Finally, we show that CCM can also be defined in the spherical and hyperbolic settings.

Mathematics - Metric Geometry and Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics

Abstract

In this paper, we introduce discrete conics, polygonal analogues of conics. We show that discrete conics satisfy a number of nice properties analogous to those of conics, and arise naturally from several constructions, including the discrete negative pedal construction and an action of a group acting on a focus-sharing pencil of conics.

Publ. Math. Uruguay (proc. of the Montevideo Dynamical Systems Congress 2012), 14 (2013)

Subjects

Mathematics - Dynamical Systems and Mathematics - Differential Geometry

Abstract

We study the dynamics of the discrete bicycle (Darboux, Backlund) transformation of polygons in n-dimensional Euclidean space. This transformation is a discretization of the continuous bicycle transformation, recently studied by Foote, Levi, and Tabachnikov. We prove that the respective monodromy is a Moebius transformation. Working toward establishing complete integrability of the discrete bicycle transformation, we describe the monodromy integrals and prove the Bianchi permutability property. We show that the discrete bicycle transformation commutes with the recutting of polygons, a discrete dynamical system, previously studied by V. Adler. We show that a certain center associated with a polygon and discovered by Adler, is preserved under the discrete bicycle transformation. As a case study, we give a complete description of the dynamics of the discrete bicycle transformation on plane quadrilaterals.

In a recent paper titled "The parbelos, a parabolic analog of the arbelos", Sondow asks for a synthetic proof to the tangency property of the parbelos. In this paper, we resolve this question by introducing a converse to Lambert's Theorem on the parabola and in the process prove some new properties of the parbelos. Comment: 5 pages, 11 figures. Comments are welcome